… is from page 27 of Thomas Sowell’s 2023 book, Social Justice Fallacies (original emphasis):
If, by some miracle, we could get to zero racism, it is by no means certain how much effect that would have. People in low-income American hillbilly counties already face zero racism, because these people are virtually all white. Yet they have lower incomes than blacks.
Conversely, in a world where nobody believes that all racism has been eliminated, black married couples have consistently had a lower poverty rate than the national average, and less than half the poverty rate among white, female-headed, single-parent families. In other words, some behavior patterns seems to pay off, more so than an absence of racism.